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  • Bone tissue

    Bone cells develop as a result of ossification of cells of cartilaginous hyaline tissue or connective tissue proper. Bone tissue is metabolically active. It is a reserve of ions (mainly calcium ions) that, when needed, can be used by the body.

    Structure of bone tissue – similar to cartilaginous tissue. Tissue consists of basic substance, ossein fibres (that is collagen fibres, called ossein fibres in bone tissue), and bone cells (osteocytes), surrounded by osseous lacunas. Basic substance contains big amount of mineral salts.

    Tissue reconstruction after injuries is similar to cartilaginous tissue – osteoclastic cells dissolve the bone and osteogenic cells fill cavity.

    Chemical composition of bone tissue – organic compounds, mineral compounds and water. With age the amount of mineral compounds grows bigger and the amount of organic compounds grows smaller. Bones become more brittle and knit with difficulty.

    Bone tissue, unlike cartilaginous, is vascularized and innervated.

    There are two types of bone tissue:

    Compact tissue
    The basic unit of that tissue is osteon that is formed by:

  • lamellas of bone
  • sulcus-shaped, that is collagen fibres immersed in basic substance (ossein)
  • osteocytes – that is bone cells, surrounded by osseous lacunas.

    Haversian canal that is inside osteon and that forms Haversian System that blood vessels and nerves go through.

    Compact bone tissue builds skeletal long bones protecting the brain.

    Spongy tissue
    It is built of lamellas of bone, lying tightly next to each other and forming bone trabeculi. And bone trabeculi form a loose, irregular net, similar to sponge. Between trabeculi bone marrow is accumulated.

    Spongy bone tissue can be found mainly in final sections of long bones, because their arrangement helps cushion overload, which is very important for joints.

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